Friday, 9 February 2018

Bilt-Hamber Auto-Foam




Once a vehicle has accumulated a significant amount of film traffic dirt and road grime and you run the risk of inflicting sub-surface paint scratches during the wash process. This is due to the greater number of contaminants present that may inadvertently be moved around as they are removed, and the tendency to use more friction on paint surface to get it clean.

You can mitigate these risks by rinsing off as surface much dirt and grime as possible using a hose or a pressure washer before washing the bodywork by hand. Ten to fifteen minutes spent carefully rinsing off in this way is time well spent, the use of a pre-wash foaming solution can help tremendously.

The idea behind applying thick clinging foam to your car before washing is simple and the benefits are obvious. If you apply a generous coating of suds to a dirty surface and allow it to cling in situ for many minutes at a time, the surfactant cleaning agents have longer to work and therefore dissolve and suspend a lot more dirt and grime. By the time the foam is eventually rinsed off much of the dirt and grime is simply washed away, leaving relatively clean surfaces behind ready for a careful wash using a car wash concentrate solution.

The major benefit is that the bulk of dirt removal is done before a wash mitt is placed on the paint surface, which greatly reduces the risk of inflicting marring and fine scratches during the hand-washing process.

Bilt Hamber Auto Wash is a low suds formula and is quite different to most other pre-wash shampoos. It’s a premium quality, low suds formula pre-wash treatment, designed to soak and saturate soiled vehicle paintwork prior to the application of vehicle shampoo. Auto-Foam is gentle and can be used in conjunction with all pressure washer foam lances (I prefer a pump sprayer as opposed to a lance) 

A highly concentrated pH 13.0  pre-wash foaming agent, produces a high foam content which both breaks the bond between the dirt particles and your vehicle’s paintwork and lubricates particles thereby enabling the safest possible removal of traffic film. highly concentrated pH 13.0  pre-wash foaming agent, however once diluted to the correct ratio it will drop to 8-10pH. It produces a high foam content which both breaks the bond between the dirt particles and your vehicle’s paintwork and lubricates particles thereby enabling the safest possible removal of traffic film.

It contains surfactants that will lift dirt, allowing it to be dissolved and carried away, whilst remaining completely touchless. It contains a powerful wetting agent that causes the bubbles in the foam to systematically burst as they move over the paint surface, enabling the surfactants to progressively soak and suspend the accumulated dirt and grime. This formula effectively lifts dirt and grime, making it easy to flush/rinse away

Use on cool surfaces. Dilute product  1:100  for light cleaning (4ml of product with 96ml of water for a total 100ml) and up to 5 parts in one hundred for heavily soiled vehicles. It is important to know the flow rate of your equipment to determine the correct add rate. If in doubt measure the nozzle output and chemical feed rate.

Foam production relies on air being drawn into a foaming solution as it passes through an injector head into the mainstream of water running through either a foam gun or a foam lance. The higher the pressure of the water, the thicker the resulting foam will be.




Application:  
Bilt Hamber auto-foam is a suitable pre-wash solution for use in any foam gun or foam lance system, as long as a final dilution ratio of approximately 50:1 can be achieved. With regard to the systems the following advice applies: 

(a) for use with a Foam Gun, remove the foam gun body and pour or pump approximately 400 ml of Bilt Hamber auto-foam into the bottle, then fill the bottle to the top with hot water, refit the foam gun body and shake the whole unit gently to mix the solution before finally attaching it to your hose - then squeeze the trigger and adjust the top dial on the foam gun body until you get the desired foam thickness;

(b) for use with a Foam Lance/ Pressure washer -, remove the foam lance body and pour approximately 200 ml of Bilt Hamber auto-foam into the bottle, then fill the bottle to the top with hot water, refit the foam lance body and shake the whole unit gently to mix the solution before finally attaching it to your pressure washer - then fire the washer up, and adjust the top dial on the foam lance body until you get the desired foam thickness.

In both examples given above, you can safely double the amount of Bilt Hamber auto-foam used when tackling particularly dirty cars, or else halve it if only a light clean is needed.
Allow the foam to dwell on the paint for about 5 mins. Then thoroughly wash off all the dirt and grime. 

Dilution: 4ml to 96ml (IL) The typical inlet water pressure to a home is about 40 to 45 psi. (3 bar)

Snow Foam
Foam is an aerated chemical mixture that you spray on using a pressure washer, the snow foam mixture itself is a pre-cleaning foam, it sits on your car paintwork and helps to dissolve and lift dirt and grime that is there. If you leave it to do its thing, it makes it easier to wash off the dirt by hand or with the pressure washer, removing all dirt and stains. The mixture you use for your snow foamer will depend on what you buy, however, to use it you will need a snow foam gun which will connect to your pressure washer.

Before beginning it is better to have dry panels, this stops the foaming from sliding off, so if it has rained or you have already washed down the car it may be better to leave it to dry before foaming

Consistency
A common problem is getting the right consistency when foaming. If it is too diluted (too much water), it will just slide off the car, therefore it won’t set and help to dissolve any dirt making it a pointless exercise.

With different formulas used by different snow foaming brands,  it isn’t possible to advise on the correct formula to use. Depending on the soap foam brand you buy, ensure to read and follow the specific instructions closely to make sure the foam applies the way it should.

Depending on the instructions for the snow foam you use for the current amount into the bottle and then top up with water and screw onto the snow cannon container.  On the container there is will be a small knob which you can turn, this will adjust the amount of foam you get when using the spray gun. If you move the knob towards the (+) you will get more water, and if you move towards the (-) you get less water. When you have less water you will have more foam so you get a stronger mix applied to the car surface. Feel free to experiment with different mixtures until you get a foam consistency that you are happy with.

To get a thick foam you want to use less water, so you do not have to fill the containers completely when mixing. When the bottles are filled completely, you tend to get runnier foam. Personal preferences will, therefore, dictate how much water you choose to use.

You may find topping up the bottle as you go along helps with the consistency of the foam, this may not be needed however if you have a large vehicle and applying a thick layer of foam then it may become thinner as you go on, so topping up will keep a consistent layer.

To get a thick foam you want to use less water, so you do not have to fill the containers completely when mixing. When the bottles are filled completely, you tend to get runnier foam. Personal preferences will, therefore, dictate how much water you choose to use.

You may find topping up the bottle as you go along helps with the consistency of the foam, this may not be needed however if you have a large vehicle and applying a thick layer of foam then it may become thinner as you go on, so topping up will keep a consistent layer.

Start Foaming
You should use sweeping, unhurried motions moving either up and down or side to side. This will ensure your car gets full and even coverage. If you have an adjustable lance, using the wide spray means you need fewer passes to cover the car. Be careful using the jet spray setting because this can actually remove foam you already had set in place.

Follow up with a suitable post foam wash.
My process differs from most in that instead of using a drying towel for my final wipe, I use a clean Microfibre towel cloth, lightly dampened with ONR from the pre-spray bottle. (About 6 sprays per side) Should there be any dirt remaining, you are at least tackling it in the safest possible way.

The biggest risk of creating swirls is at the drying stage, especially using a dry microfibre towel. Using ONR as a drying aid is definitely the safest way to approach this task. The dampened Microfibre towel / ONR working together bring out the best qualities of each technology. 


Copyright © 2010 - 2016 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserve

Removal of Road Paint (Traffic Lane Paint)

Road paint

Is a pigmented resin system, very high in solids with a colour aggregate and is more like an adhesive than paint; it contains silica (glass) microbeads that help reflect light, however, they can cause scratches if you use mechanical removal.

Correction / Removal –
(a) Use 3M Adhesive Remover and detailer’s clay or a plastic razor blade.
 (b) 3M Eraser Wheel Detailer’s Clay
(c) Wet-sand with 2000 - 2500 grit finishing paper and a Unigrit block.

For heavy accumulations or paint that has dried for several days on the vehicles paint surface, apply a liberal coating of Vaseline to the dried traffic paint and allow the product to remain overnight and then pressure wash. This should remove most of the traffic paint. If not, repeat the procedure.

Road Paint Remover (wipes) – TOTL; Lay the smooth side of the wipe over the contamination to saturate the surface. Let it sit for about one minute to soften the paint. Use the textured side of a new wipe and rub vigorously. Use firm pressure and a lot of action. Particularly difficult cases may take a second application.
 Once you have removed the road paint, wash off the chemical with shampoo and a spot polish should bring back the original shine. (Do not use on paint that is less than 90 days old) The same technique can be used for old tar removal.

Car Brite Road Paint Remover -safely removes road paint, paint overspray, tree sap, tar, bug residue, urethanes, adhesives and rubberized undercoating from cured clear coat finishes.

Thursday, 8 February 2018

Selecting a suitable polish, things to consider:



Menzerna Polishing Range


Menzerna Heavy Cut Compound
A light cutting compound designed to remove major paint defects
Capable of polishing out 1200grit sanding marks 
Cut: 10/10
Gloss: 7/10
Contains fillers
Lake Country Hydro-Tech Cutting Pad

Menzerna Medium Cut Polish 2 -200
A light cutting compound designed to remove minor paint defects
Cut: 8/10
Gloss: 8/10
Contains no fillers
Lake Country Hydro-Tech Cutting Pad

Menzerna Medium Cut Polish 2 -500
A light cutting compound designed to remove minor paint defects
Cut: 5/10
Gloss: 9/10
Contains no fillers
Lake Country Hydro-Tech Cutting Pad

Menzerna Super Finish 3500
Cut: 4/10
Gloss: 10/10
Contains no fillers
Lake Country Hydro-Tech Finishing Pad.

Menzerna Super Finish 3800
Its cut and gloss characteristics make it ideal for removing wash /wiping dry marring and faint swirl marks on all paint types
Cut: 2/10
Gloss: 10/10
Contains no fillers
Lake Country Hydro-Tech Finishing Pad.

Menzerna One Step Polish 3-in-1
A heavy cutting compound designed to remove medium paint defects
Capable of polishing out 3000 grit sanding marks 
Cut: 5/10
Gloss: 9/10
Lake Country Hydro-Tech Polishing or Cutting Pad

Selecting a suitable polish / Foam Pad
Using Menzerna polishes / Lake County Hydro-Tch foam pads as a baseline; things to consider: type of defect to remove, Cut, Gloss and a suitable pad. Any abrasive polish and pad combination is only as fine as its coarsest component. All abrasive polishes are ‘foam pad and applied pressure dependant’ as far as their paint correction abilities are concerned. Any abrasive / pad combination is reliant upon its most abrasive component.

Lake Country' s Hydrotech Foam Pads are designed specifically for the application of water-based polishes and compounds.These are low profile pad prolong the working time of water-based polishes and compounds. The slim flat profile makes these pads ideal for buffing hard, scratch-resistant paint finishes.

The key to the polishing process is to know how the paint will react with each pad/polish combination you consider using. You must know your product and what its capabilities are before using it. This is why a ‘test’ spot is so important.

The factors that affect the outcome -speed, friction (kinetic energy) applied pressure, foam pad actual surface contact area, pad grit number (abrasive ability) amount of surface lubrication available, the surface area and heat conductivity of material

The abrasive polishing process is one in which larger surface scratches are replaced with finer and finer scratches until they are invisible to the naked eye.Scratches usually have ridges on two sides, this is what catches the light and makes them visible, Removing these ridges makes the paint surface flat and enables light to be uniformly reflected

The key to the polishing process is to know how the paint will react with each pad/polish combination you consider using. You must know your product and what its capabilities are before using it. This is why a ‘test’ spot is so important.

Going through the grits
This is not a southern states detailer having breakfast. Most polishes have a grit number, that’s to say the grit marks left by wet sanding that can be removed by that polish, So a polished rated at 1500 will remove the micro scratches left by 1500 grit finishing paper. So you gradually go through various polishes (1500, 2500, 3500 and etc) until you have the paint surface gloss you desire, These are called polishing ‘Stages’

Diagnosis is the key; not guesswork
Examine the vehicle's bodywork, a ‘bag-test will ascertain the need for detailer’s clay, and a Brinkman light will help you find any evidence of surface blemishes i.e. swirl marks and scratches.

The most important first step in the process of paint surface detailing is diagnosing the paint surface; density of clear coat (hard or soft) or single stage paint, surface condition; ascertain the severity of the surface blemishes with an inspection light and the paint thickness available.

The paintwork should be evaluated with a paint thickness gauge to see what thickness of clear coat remains before you decide how much paint renovation can be safely carried or wither paint preservation would be the appropriate option, before you proceed, measuring with a paint thickness gauge will dictate the choice and abrasiveness of polish / compound for correction or renovation level required or indeed possible

Always follow the rule of starting with the least abrasive combination, i.e. a machine polish and the least aggressive foam or wool pad (working smarter not harder) The most important first step in the process of paint surface detailing is diagnosing the paint surface; density of clear coat (hard or soft) or single stage paint, surface condition; ascertain the severity of the surface blemishes with an inspection light and the paint thickness available.

Measuring with a paint thickness gauge will dictate the choice and abrasiveness of polish/compound for correction or renovation level required or indeed possible. Assess the correction level working through the range of polishes from the lightest abrasive upwards until the desired level of correction is reached. Selecting the correct pad/polish combination for the vehicles paint/defects can take just as long as the paint correction process

Pad Dependency
Any abrasive polish and pad combination is only as fine as its coarsest component. All abrasive polishes are ‘foam pad and applied pressure dependant’ as far as their paint correction abilities are concerned. Any abrasive / pad combination is reliant upon its most abrasive component.

Lake Country' s Hydrotech Foam Pads are designed specifically for the application of water-based polishes and compounds.These are low profile pads are made from European pre-polymer foam that prolongs the working time of water-based polishes and compounds so you have more time to create a better finish. The slim flat profile makes these pads ideal for buffing hard, scratch-resistant paint finishes.

 If we consider the Lake Country Mfg (LC) White foam (50 PPI) polishing pad as the baseline; any polish used will derive help from the abrasive abilities of the foam. Then consider the LC Blue (70 PPI) finishing pad has no abrasive ability and will contribute nothing to the cutting capability of a polish.

What is derived from this is that a polishes abrasive ability can be ‘fine-tuned’ by using different combinations (abrasiveness) of polish and foam (the same thing is true of wool pads) and of course differing the amount of downward pressure (10-15 Lbs is the usual range) applied will also have an effect on the abrasives capability

Different pad / product combinations (least abrasive pad / polish first)

Base pad/product (least abrasive pad/product) if this combination does not provide the desired results, increase the aggressiveness of the technique or product selection.
Step-up 1 - using the same pad with a more abrasive product
Step-up II – use a less abrasive pad and the same product as used in step-up I
Step-up III- using the same pad with a more abrasive product

As can be ascertained from the above the total abrasive ability of a polish/foam pad combination is subject to many variables, the polishes abrasive ability is just the starting point.

If you need to be more aggressive, step up from a foam pad to a Foam / Wool hybrid and then Wool then Microfiber, if that doesn't work, go to a SurBuf pad and after that, you’ll need to switch your polish or compounds.


Identifying Foam Qualities

There are eight factors that rate in foam quality; Density (or rebound), Compression, Sag Factor, Fatigue loss, Hysteresis, Tensile, Elongation and Tear resistance. However, it is compression, hysteresis, and tensile strength that have the most to do with the abrasive or cutting ability of a pad.

These factors all play into how much give the pad has under pressure and torque. Density, (not a measurement of compression) has a lot to do with the amount of polish the pad will accept (see also pores per inch (PPI)) a pad that holds a good volume of polish allows the polish to do the cutting job instead of the pad.

Velocity and applied Pressure are also factors that affect a foam abrasive (cutting) ability, all of these factors affect the flexibility of the foam under pressure and torque

The abrasion or cutting ability of a foam pad relative to its composition, the work is approximately distributed, 60% product, 30% foam composition (density, pores per inch (PPI)) and 10% pressure applied and/or speed of rotation or oscillation.

Lake County Hydo-Tech foam
Are made of imported European pre-polymer foam. This long-wearing, high-quality foam is less absorbent in order to keep the majority of polish on the pad's surface. This enables a longer working time with your water-based polishes and compounds, resulting in less product used to achieve the perfect finish.

Hydro-Tech Foam Pads are designed specifically for the application of water-based polishes and compounds. European pre-polymer foam prolongs the working time so you have more time to create a flawless finish

Test Panel
When removing defects from the paint surface, consider not only which polish/compound you'll be using, but how you'll be using it. Your choice of machine speed, pad construction, pad size and applied pressure will all impact the abrasive abilities of the polishing liquid.

After testing a section to confirm this method, select an area of 18 x 18-inches and tape it off with painter’s tape, as this is an optimal working section to perform a product test spot; this will help establish a process that will produce the best possible finish, once this is established repeat the process over the entire paint surface.

Select a ‘typical’ area - (one that represents the type of defects that you want to remove) and starting with the least abrasive polish and / pad combination and then proceed until the defects are removed. This is the polish/pad combination you’ll need to use

Pad conditioning
Spread the polish/compound over the pad evenly and ensure it is absorbed into the foam, then spread that polish onto the pad by hand until it becomes 80% saturated.

By ensuring the pad doesn’t become saturated with polish it allows the inbuilt cushioning effect and the pads designed foam qualities; i.e. density (or rebound), compression (‘hardness or stiffness) and without altering its in-built air-flow, which will decrease its heat dissipating abilities, causing it to transfer more kinetic friction heat to the surface

Polishing process
Place four pea-sized dots of the polish selected and proceed to polish out paint defects. When you are satisfied with the results, clean the surface with OPT Paint Prep so that no silicone oils, surfactants, and etc remain.


Cleaning Pads 
All pads have a performance cycle, meaning you will get the desired results only to a certain point on that curve. The point of declining performance is typically reached by polish/compound pad being overloaded with a product; you should always be able to see the individual cells or texture of the pad, with proper, regular cleaning pad overload can be avoided.

Clean and/or replace pads as often as is necessary; a clean, primed and seasoned pad will enhance the abrasive abilities of the compound/polish and make the process not only more efficient but less time-consuming. I would recommend soaking used pads in a  solution of Optimum Power Clean™ / water until you are ready to wash them






Hydro-Tech Foam Pads


Copyright © 2010 - 2016 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserve





Wednesday, 7 February 2018

Fabric Upholstery Cleaning


Basic Cleaning Requirements
Test cleaner on an inconspicuous area then allowing it to dry to make sure the solution does not react with the surface, is the best way to ensure there are no surprises as to its effect, but be cognizant that it may not react in exactly the same way as a heavily soiled area or that has been subjected to UV-B radiation (faded)

Providing the cleaning product selected is suitable, apply several drops of the selected cleaning solution in an inconspicuous area and rub gently with a clean, white micro fibre towel. Do not over wet. Use small amounts of the product and blot frequently, do not rub or use too much pressure.   Do not use the product if it adversely changes your fabric's colour or texture.

Cleaning products (with the exception of glass cleaners) should be sprayed on to a folded 100% microfibre cotton towel, do not spray any cleaning product  directly to the surface, as this may cause ‘spot or streak’ clean patches on the surface

As with all detailing tasks; surface preparation is the most important first step. Products will bond to a substrate and therefore be more durable if applied to a properly cleaned and prepared surface. Most automotive fabric seats are synthetics acrylic or a polyester nylon as they are a durable fabric, but they react to cleaning solvents very differently than organic fabrics like cotton

 Three types of energy are required;
1. Chemical energy- provided by the synthetic cleaner
2. Kinetic (abrasion) energy provided by machine or hand
3. Thermal energy -provided by warm or hot water

To clean fabric seats and obtain the desired outcome;
· Use an upholstery brush to loosen dust and fibres
· Vacuum to remove loose dust etc
· Identify the material/fabric you are working with
· Identify the type of stain and/or soiling
· Use an appropriate pre-spray and allow sufficient time to work
· Use an enzyme type cleaner to remove odours
· For stains, first blot to remove any liquid and then use an appropriate stain remover
· Use a heated water extraction machine to remove excess moisture
· Rinse with clean water
· Dry thoroughly
· Apply a fabric protector

Use a high-quality cleaner, formulated without strong solvents and one that has a pH value between 4 and 10 (neither strongly acidic nor overtly alkaline).

Stains: The first thing you should do upon discovering a stain is to act immediately. Don’t wait because heat and/or time will just cause the stain to set in deeper, which will make it much harder to remove. Before deciding upon treatment, you should first access what ‘type’ of stain it is, before a stain can be removed the surface tension that bonds it must be released, then the stain encapsulated and held in suspension to be removed.

Classifying stains
a) Organic stains- these include proteins and fats, body oils, mould yeast, bacteria, bugs and carbohydrates. Most of the stains found in the vehicle interior are of an organic nature and require an alkaline type cleaner. Some organic stains (i.e. blood, vomit, urine) should be removed with an enzyme type cleaner and a disinfectant applied to the area

b) Non-Organic stains- mostly found on the exterior of the vehicle, hard water scale (calcium) lime deposits, Road tar, grease and oil film, and require an acidic type cleaner.
c) Petroleum soils - substances that do not contain water, nor are they miscible, these soil types include, motor oils, and crease and road tar, and require a solvent type cleaner.
        
Stain Types
a) Water Soluble Stains- These stains can be dissolved in cool water or loosened with water based cleaner, coffee; soft drinks, cocoa and chocolate are good examples.

b) Oil soluble stains- These are stains that are comprised of oily or greasy substances, which include cooking, oil from fried foods and suntan oil.

c) Combination Stains- These stains contain both water-based and oil-soluble properties. Cleaning these stains require treatment with a petroleum solvent followed by water-based cleaning solution.

d) Unidentifiable Stains- Sometimes stains cannot be identified. Treat these stains like a combination stain. Clean with a petroleum solvent followed by a water-based cleaner.
Always select a chemical/cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment

 Specific fabric stains
a)  Red Stains- Try to find out the source of the stain (Koolaid, Gatorade, Red wine, etc.) It is important to know the source of many old coffee or tea stains can look like red dye stains and many stains if treated improperly can "set" and then be a major task to remove
Removing Red Stains is one of the toughest to remove because usually a red food dye is used and if spilt on fabric or upholstery it will dye it. Use Red Stain Remover (topoftheline.com) is a unique formulation that removes super tough red stains. Spray the solution on the stain and agitated with a brush to make sure it has penetrated the fibre. Allow it to sit a few minutes to ensure the chemical "action" dissolves the dye.
Place a dry towel over the area and press with a hot iron, as the heat draws the dye to the towel so it can be lifted from the fabric. http://www.fabriclink.com/fabriccare.html

The process may take a couple of applications especially if the stain is old, or has been allowed to set for some time. Follow with a thorough by hand-cleaning using Woolite® Heavy Traffic Carpet Cleaner, or with a carpet extractor. Once carpet is thoroughly dry protect it from future stains (using 303 Fabric Protector)

   b) Blood- remove the stain as soon as possible; if it sets it will be more difficult to remove, As a rule of thumb, you should never scrub a blood stain. Instead, you blot it to minimize the spread. As soon as you see there is a blood spot, blot the area and soak up as much as you can. Your car might have a tissue bag so burst it open and use the tissues to soak the blood up.

Do not press hard since it would push the blood down, instead work very slowly on the spot and try to remove as much blood as possible from the area. A smart way is to start from the edges and work your way towards the centre.

Sprinkle parts of cold water and club soda on the affected area. Do not apply hot water as that would dilute the blood and it might seep deep. For blood stains that are dry, you need to mix laundry detergent, cold water and glycerine to form a solution, 80% of which should be water. Glycerine and detergent should be used in equal proportion. Spray this solution on the blood stain and sponge it. Once the spot is removed, spray cold water to remove the solution.

Once the stain has been removed the area should also be treated with a disinfectant (Lysol™ Disinfectant). Take all necessary precautions when dealing with blood (latex gloves, and etc) and when disposing of blood-stained items.

Wipe down the area with a damp micro fibre towel and then remove blood stains using a 2:1 solution cold distilled water / Hydrogen peroxide, this will eliminate the stain and provide a disinfectant.  
Finally rinse the area with a damp micro fibre towel. Take all necessary precautions when dealing with bodily fluid stains (latex gloves and etc) and when disposing of soiled items.  

c) Wax (candle or crayon)- to remove melted wax from carpeting, place an absorbent paper towel folded 4-5 times over the wax and with a hot iron run it back and forth on the towel (renewing as required) this will re-liquefy the wax and the towel will absorb it. Repeat as necessary.

d) Pet Stains - Enzyme is specially formulated using enzyme action to eliminate odours caused by pet urine vomit to digest the stains and odours left behind by pet urine and faeces. (PETsMART)

e) Paint 
· Do not rub or use pressure on the affected area. Pat with a dry rag to gently wipe the paint away if the stain is very fresh.
· Clear away any excess paint by abrading  the surface of dried paint with a plastic (ScrapeRite blades) or single-sided razor blade
· Do not use paint thinner as it will cause the paint to migrate and ‘bleed’ producing a larger stain
·  Place a small amount of isopropyl alcohol or a non-oil-based nail polish remover, such as Acetone solvent on a sponge and blot the paint-stained area.
· Use a clean sponge to blot the previously stained area with P21S® High Performance Total Auto Wash, a Limonene (citrus based) cleaner to remove paint residue.
· Wait a few minutes. This will break up the compounds of the paint and make it easier to wipe off using any of the aforementioned methods
· Thoroughly rinse the area with clean water.

f) Bituminous Asphalt Stain Removal
a)  A solvent (Stoner™ Tarminator) can also dissolve a variety of oil and petroleum-based products, it's safe to use on all types of paint, plastics, synthetic fibres, carpet and upholstery. If used on vehicle paintwork re-apply a protect rant after use. Something else you can try is isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using a sponge or towels gently blot until the stain is lifted. Blot again with cool water to rinse. Dry with a thick towel.

b) A dry cleaning solvent will also remove asphalt, as with the alcohol, pour onto a sponge or cloth and blot. Keep blotting until the stain is lifted and then blot with cool water until all traces of the chemical is removed; blot dry with a thick towel.

g) Road Paint / Asphalt Remover- lay the smooth side of the wipe over the contamination to saturate the surface. Let it sit for about one minute to soften the paint. Use the textured side of a new wipe and rub vigorously. Use firm pressure and a lot of action. Particularly difficult cases may take a second application. Once you have removed the road paint, wash off the chemical with shampoo or glass cleaner. A quick spot polish should bring back the original shine. (Do not use on paint jobs less than 90 days old)The same technique can be used for old tar removal. If the first application doesn't remove it completely, apply a new wipe and repeat the process.

i) Grease / Oil – use a terry cloth towel to soak up any residue and then use a degreaser (Optimum Power Clean™) or a spot remover (303 Cleaner & Spot Remover™) work product into material with an upholstery brush. Once fabric is dry apply a fabric protection (303™ High Tech Fabric Guard) If you have access to a steam cleaner it will readily remove grease / oil

h) Coffee -remove from the surface as soon as possible as a coffee spill in the car may leave a permanent stain if left untreated, but coffee stain removal methods may help you restore your car seat fabric to its original colour. 

With all cleaning products, always test a small, inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour or stain the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material. As can be seen, stain removal requires some knowledge of basic chemistry.

· Absorb excess coffee from the area by blotting with a clean terry cloth towel
a) Spray the stain with a mixture of one part white distilled vinegar to two parts warm water then blot the liquid with a clean terry cloth towel. Repeat this until the stain lifts.
b) Mix a 1:1 solution of P21S® High-Performance Total Auto Wash with warm distilled water, if the vinegar treatment is ineffective, and dampen a sponge or white towel with the solution.
· Blot the stain with clean terry cloth towel to remove it, and then rinse the soap from the seat with a sponge and clean, cool water. Absorb any remaining liquid with cotton towels.
· Clean the stain with 303 Cleaner & Spot Remover™) following the manufacturer's instructions if the stain persists.
· Once fabric is dry apply a fabric protection (303™ High Tech Fabric Guard)

i) Protein Stain Remover (including blood)
Protein Stain Remover- the HT-67 will remove blood, urine pet, and food stains, but what makes it unique is its formulation. The stain remover is a highly concentrated, biodegradable powder that is designed to be mixed with an all-purpose cleaner. It will boost the cleaning power of a regular cleaner to a powerful, spot blasting level. A level breaks down the most stubborn, stains.
Mix 1/4 cup to a gallon diluted, HT-49 All-Purpose Cleaner. Spray on the stained area and let set for a few minutes. Scrub with a carpet/upholstery brush. Spray/rinse with water, let dry and vacuum.
    
j) Water Marks (Browning) 
Clean and extract as normal. Follow with a sprayed mist of a 'souring agent' to prevent browning, colour bleed and those awful 'watermarks'. Extract with plain water (no detergent). Pro's Choice "Browning Treatment" (formerly known as Brown Out) is an excellent treatment for water stains on upholstered furniture, caused by wet cleaning, and treatment of brownout on upholstery or carpet due to over-wetting. Simply apply full strength to the problem area. Wait to dry and then evaluate.  

Pro's Choice - https://www.proschoicesupply.com/products/?cat=Stain_Removal

Different cleaning methods to remove two different types of contaminants
1. Hot water and liquid soap to remove water-soluble contaminants:
Dirt, Mud
Road Salt

2. Wax and Grease Remover to remove solvent soluble contaminants:
Grease and Oil (Stoner’s Tarminator)
Road Tar ditto
Tree Sap ditto
Bird Droppings ditto
Wax and Polishes (DuPont Prepsol)
Silicone   ditto

With all cleaning products (especially solvents) always test a small inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour, stain or etch the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material After the paint surface has been subjected to a chemical cleaning its protective layer (s) have been removed and the paint surface left without protection, so it is very important that a wax or polymer protection be applied immediately.

As can be seen, stain removal requires some knowledge of basic chemistry. Read the product labels and manufacturers material safety data sheets (MSDS) to obtain a basic idea of contents, pH levels etc. Always select a chemical/cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment. (See also Vehicle Interior Detailing, Solvents)

Fabric Upholstery Cleaning Methods
Alternative fabric upholstery cleaning methods
· Hand application
· Dry steam vapour
· Extractor System
· Tornador air/liquid cleaning tool

Using dry steam vapour
A system that produces a high temperature, low moisture vapour that contains only 5% to 6% water and is much less dense than air, a steam vapour system is equipped to safely produce thousands of gallons of live dry steam using only about 1.5 quarts of water per hour. It is mess free with temperatures hot enough to kill bacteria and germs, emulsify grease and oil as well as other surface contaminants. These units are best suited for light cleaning (covered leather or fabric upholstery) maintenance and spot removal.

Apply a cleaner to a sponge, work up foam and apply to the surface, then pass the steamer just above the top of the area just cleaned and lightly agitate with a micro fibre towel, then wipe dry. Steam vapour helps to emulsify the grime, while the foam encapsulates it. Steam, when it cools, turns to condensate (water) which helps to re-hydrate the hide

Using an Extractor System
 An extraction system process is the choice of professional detailers due to its cost-effectiveness, performance efficiency and time-saving over conventional methods. Extractors work by using a cleaning solution dispensed from a tank that heats the solution to 200oF+ and is sprayed at medium pressure (50 PSI +) and a high volume from the machine via a cleaning wand; it is then filtered and re-circulated.

The water is heated and pressurized, which produces a dry vapour. When the vapour leaves the nozzle it is then subjected to atmospheric pressure and expands (a phase change), vapour micro-molecules are able to penetrate the pores on any permeable surface. When the molecules come in contact with a surface they expand forcing any dirt, debris, and bacteria to the surface (steam vapour also kills bacteria) Dry vapour has a water content of about 5%, so the surface dries extremely quickly

Extraction also allows the ability to remove cleaning residues due to its high suction power (100-inch water gauge +). Rinsed fabrics look and smell cleaner and resist soiling better. I know ‘lesser’ machines may give the appearance of a clean interior, but in reality, the soil is being migrated the bottom of the carpet, this dampened soil will cause mould/mildew formation as the suction lift on lesser machines is pretty much non-existent. Mould uses enzymes to digest nutrients from organic materials, the mould forms on top of the material and also down into its fibres leaving circular or black spots in an irregular pattern Dirt and moisture are essential to mildew propagation.

Pre-cleaner-
a) Organic stain removal- quarter (1/4) cup Protein Stain Remover (topoftheline.com) / 1-cup 303™ Cleaner & Spot Remover / one gallon hot water let react for 5-10 minutes to enable cleaners to react

b) Other stain removals- 10:1 solution of P21S® Total Auto Wash and distilled hot water, let solution react for 5-10 minutes to enable cleaners to react

Methodology
· Use a rubber bristle brush to go over the material to raise the fibres
· Vacuum area very thoroughly (Metro Vac N' Blo®) to lift all the loose dirt from the carpet Remove any stains with 303™ Spot Remover & Cleaner 
· Spot treat really bad stains (303™ Cleaner & Spot Remover)
· Use a pre-cleaner solution, 10:1 solution of P21S® Total Auto Wash and distilled hot water, let solution react for 5-10 minutes to enable cleaners to react
· After sufficient react time agitate pre-cleaner solution with an upholstery brush to ‘scrub’ surfaces
· Use an extractor to clean and remove liquid and dirt. (Vapour Clean Products T5 Extractor / Spotter®) 
· Use a 16:1 solution clean distilled hot water 303™ Cleaner & Spot Remover 
· Use a rubber bristle brush go over the material to raise the fibres
· The next step would be to use a high-volume vacuum, in one direction only (do not scrub) to remove the excess moisture and grime, immediately recovering it.
· Allow to thoroughly dry before use
· Once fabric is dry apply a fabric protection (303™ High Tech Fabric Guard)

Alternative products - Duragloss #451 FC (Fabric & Carpet Cleaner) This aerosol foam is a blend of surfactants, which gently foam away soil, oil and grease from fabric and carpet surfaces. Spot cleaning can be done without leaving rings on fabric and velour.

Notes:
1. Use a heated extractor on the newer ‘sport fabric’ seats as they use a fire retardant that will easily stain (sweat, water, etc)
2. Use the hottest water available it also helps to pre-spray the carpet with hot water when hand cleaning carpets / mats
3. Run a 2:1 solution distilled water / distilled white vinegar thru the extractor either weekly, or after every ten fresh fills. Vinegar, contains Acetic acid, an organic carboxylic that will help eliminate scale, mild mineral deposits etc. from clogging your extractor.
4. Odour removal- add 4 ounces Door Terminator to each gallon of extractor solution. Clean interior glass after use to prevent spotting. (Automotive International - Valugard Product Line)

Upholstery Specialist Tool
Another alternative if you have access to a compressed air supply is the Tornador air/liquid cleaning tool- this product is totally unique; its air driven oscillating tip and nozzle creates a venturi (tornado) cleaning action that tackles some of the most challenging jobs. Save time and product costs. Clean dirty car interiors faster and better, for cleaning hard vinyl, plastic, storage pockets, cup holders, door jambs, seat belts, any nooks and crannies, consoles, dashboards, and other hard to reach areas of automotive interiors.

It uses a unique pressurized air process to spray a mixture of water and soap onto a dirty surface. After wiping area with a towel or brushing area simply turn a lever to air purge and help dry the cleaned surfaces. Requires a minimum air pressure of 5.0 CFM @ 60 to 90 PSI, for optimum performance (max 110 PSI) 

To clean any surface, dilute a cleaner (1:10 - P21S® High Performance Total Auto Wash) as necessary; turn the liquid valve straight up and use an overlapping motion as you pass the gun over the surface.
If necessary, allow the cleaning liquid to react for 10-15 seconds. Use a microfiber towel to absorb excess liquid. Then turn the liquid valve off and use the compressed air to dry the cleaned area. Makes interior cleaning more efficient and easier but the expense of the tool and the required air supply just may make it a little too expensive for hobby detailers.